TILING WORK

INTRODUCTION :

Tiling is done, in order to give appearance, durability and elegance to the floors and walls. This is a very important activity and involves precision; as it directly affects the beauty, serviceability and elegance of a house.

TILING BY NATURAL STONES:

Stones are naturally available i.e. these are available in quarries in huge blocks. These blocks are taken out by machineries and brought on shop floor for getting the required shape, size, polish and thickness etc.

The natural stones used for tiling are :-

  • Shahabad stone 
  • Tandoor stone
  • Kota stone
  • Marble stone
  • Granite stone
  • Kadappa stone
  1. Shahabad stone: This stone is preferred where the floor is subjected to heavy pedestrian traffic due to which more wear & tear occurs. It is used for flooring on footpaths/kerbings; parking areas etc. This stone is used for waterproofing also, due to its non-porosity. For a good quality of flooring in shahabad, minimum thickness of shahabad tile should be 40mm. Shahabad tile can be polished as per requirement.

  2. Tandoor stone: – This stone tiling offers a better alternative to shahabad tile. This tiling gives better elegance & durability. This stone is more mouldable than shahabad stone. Both the edges of this stone, when dressed very sharply, are not durable.

  3. Kota stone:- This stone gives a richer look and durability. It does not get affected when dressed and polished. The joints between tiles of this stones can be made very much thin to add to the beauty and durability of the flooring. Kota is easily mouldable than tandoor and gives better appearance. The appearance of Kota flooring goes on improving over a period of time therefore this stone is preferred for tiling in corridors, in public buildings and in staircases.

  4. Marble stones: – There are various types of marble recognized by specific names as per the location of quaries. The properties of the stone vary slightly from quarry to quarry. The durability, porosity, mouldability and consistency of colour, governs the selection of specific types of marble. The rich appearance and the ethnic myths attached to it, is also a key factor while selecting this material.

  5. Granite stone: – To overcome the limitations of the other stones, another natural stone i.e. granite stone was experimented for flooring & cladding. This stone proved its versatile use for the required purposes. The variety of attractive colours grains, textures, the mouldability, the durability and the excellent look after polishing, are some of the properties, tempting to select this stone for tiling.

  6. Kadappa stone: – This stone is named as Kadappa as it is available at village Kadappa in Andhra Pradesh. This stone is used for very limited purposes due to its heavy density ( dead load ). The limited range of colours and increasing brittleness with decreasing thickness restricts the use of this stone. But still, thicker slabs (25 mm to 40 mm) of this stone are properly used for shelves; supports of the cup boards & in kitchen platforms etc.

PREPLANNING:

Finalizing The Levels For Various Items: –

  1. Finalize the FFL of entrance foyer.
  2. Fix level dots near staircase on first floor landing considering mortar thickness of 12mm.
  3. Provide 12mm slope for floor landing from main door towards staircase.
  4. Keep flooring (inside a flat/shop)12mm above the floor landing.
  5. Maintain floor levels for all flats on one landing at same level.
  6. Mark the levels of all the successive floor landings considering the level on the earliest floor landing as the datum. (Near the staircase).
  7. This process helps in finalizing the levels of various items such as plumbing, electrical etc.

PROCEDURE FOR FIXING OF NATURAL STONE:

  1. As per the requirement, the natural stones are dressed and brought to the required size and shape by using template, farma etc.
  2. The sides of the stone are chiseled and dressed to obtain minimum thickness of joints and to maintain proper levels.
  3. The procedure for mixing mortar and fixing the tiles with respect to various desiredlevels is common for all material used for flooring. The necessary change in the procedure can be made as per the peculiarity of the stone adhering to the engineering norms. General common procedure is given subsequently.

METHOD OF POLISHING FOR NATURAL STONE:

  1. Polishing work should be done only after proper curing period is over.
  2. Ensure that the surface is cleaned properly. Masking is done to all walls and door shutters to a height of 60cm from the floor.
  3. Carry out the polishing work by using stones as follows:
    1. First coat Stone no. 60
    2. Second coat Stone no 120
    3. Third coat Stone no 320
    4. Fourth coat– Stone no 600

Grouting is done in between first and second coat of polishing work. Take necessary precautions to avoid damages to the polished surface. Plan the succeeding activities accordingly.

ARTIFICAL FLOORING:

  1. Ceramic/ glazed floor tiles.
  2. Vitrified flooring tiles.
  3. Wooden flooring.
  4. PVC flooring.

All the above artificial tiles are man made and are available in various sizes, shapes and colours. They are widely used as flooring tiles. Some of the advantages of using these flooring materials are speedy work, clean job and aesthetically good look.

PROCEDURE FOR FIXING OF FLOORING:

  1. Before starting the tiling work, all surfaces shall be cleaned for excessive mortar.
  2. Clear margin for skirting shall be maintained in bedding mortar thickness.
  3. Confirm the flooring layout and changes if any..
  4. The various F.F.L’s shall be decided and marked accordingly in the respective areas such as landings at entrance, attached terraces, all the toilets etc. The required slopes, wherever necessary, shall be decided

Beforehand. The mortar thickness shall also be maintained between 20 to 50 mm while deciding the levels and slopes.

  1. Flooring tiles shall be sorted for size and colour.
  2. Tiles should be soaked for atleast 2 hours before fixing or as specified by manufacturer..
  3. Cement and sand mortar is prepared in required proportion of 1:6 for bedding.
  4. Make the level dots on all four corners of the room and tie a string atleast 150 mm away from the walls and check the diagonals.
  5. After finalizing all level dots and diagonals, start with the bedding work. The bedding should be properly compacted and levelled.
  6. The bedding process should be revised as per the thickness of the flooring material.
  7. Prepare cement slurry of approximately 1.5 bags in 100 liters of water.
  8. Spread the cement slurry on the mortar bed as and when the tile fixing progresses. By tamping gently with wooden mallet, ensure all corners of tiles are in level.
  9. Bedding material between the joints should be cleaned with brush before it dries.
  10. Unless and otherwise specified, use spacers in the joints.
  11. Tiles and joints should be cleaned with water.
  12. The joints shall be filled using tile joint filler on the next day.
  13. Curing shall be carried on atleast for 7 days.
  14. Fixing of skirting should be done only after curing period is over.

In case of natural stones flooring, polishing work is done after proper curing.

  1. Soak the masonry at the skirting level before skirting is fixed.
  2. Skirting should be fixed in line, level and plumb.
  3. Ensure that, no voids are left between the skirting and walls.
  4. Match the skirting joints with the joints of flooring.
  5. Fix the skirting, using mortar proportion 1:1.

WALL CLADDING:

Wall cladding work should be carried out after completion of waterproofing, concealed plumbing and electrical work is completed. Confirm changes if any, confirm the pattern also.

  1. Tiles shall be sorted out for size, shape & colour.
  2. Tiles shall be soaked in water atleast for two hours or as specified by manufacturer..
  3. The verticality and right angles of the walls shall be checked.
  4. The wall shall be wetted with water.
  5. The dots shall be marked for plumb and right angle.
  6. Cement sand mortar shall be prepared in 1:1 proportion.
  7. The bottom of the cladding tile shall be decided, confirming the full tile at nahani trap (Excluding the margin of floor tiles).
  1. Mortar thickness shall not exceed 20mm.
  2. Fixing of tile shall start from bottom to top in layers.
  1. The verticality of tiled surface and right angles at corners are to be checked.
  2. The vertical and horizontal joints shall be matched during the work.
  3. Tile joints shall be raked at the end of the same day & the joints shall be filled by joint filler on the next day.
  4. While fixing each tile, see that the mortar covers the full tile area and no voids are left behind.
  5. All openings for electrical and plumbing points shall be provided simultaneously & precisely.
  6. Curing shall be done atleast for 7 days.

BATHROOM/TOILET FLOORING:

  1. Bathroom floor tile work shall be started after fixing of room flooring, bath dado / fixing orrisa pan, is completed.
  2. Levels shall be marked properly for drops and slopes to be given towards nahani trap.
  3. Procedure for preparation of sub base remains same as per tile flooring
  4. The dado tiles shall rest on floor tiles at all junctions of floor & dado.
  5. All openings for nahani trap and commode shall be made precisely on the same day, using cutter machine necessarily.
  6. Tile joints should be racked at the end of the same day and joints shall be filled with joint filer on the next day.
  7. Curing shall be done atleast for 7 days.

WINDOW SILLS AND THRESHOLDS:

A] Fixing Of Window Sills: –

  1. Window sills shall be fixed after completion of window work.
  2. Before fixing the sills, Adhesive and fine sand shall be applied at the bottom of window sill material for proper bonding.
  3. The portion, where sill is to be fixed, shall be cleaned and wetted with water. The window frame surface shall be masked.
  4. Sand mortar shall be prepared in the C.M.1:4.
  5. Window sill shall be fixed in line and level. Keep 12 mm bearing in the walls on both the sides and projecting out up to 5 mm from the finished surface of wall.
  6. The adjoining plaster surface and window frame shall be cleaned properly.
  7. The window sill shall be finished with C.M. 1:4. The plaster shall be matched with old  plaster in line and plumb.
  8. Curing shall be done atleast for 7 days.

B] FIXING OF THRESHOLDS ( UMBRA PATTI) :-

  1. Thresholds (umbra Patti) are usually provided for main doors, toilet doors, terraces & balconies.
  2. Umbra Patti shall be fixed in C.M. 1:4 and in cement slurry in proper line and level.
  3. The umbra Patti for toilet and terrace/ balcony shall overlap the floor tile of toilet, terrace/ balconies.
  4. Curing shall be done atleast for 7 days.

KITCHEN PLATFORM :-

Kitchen platform work shall be started after flooring work is completed. Changes shall be confirmed before starting the work. Usually height of the kitchen platform shall be kept 800 mm from the F.F.L.

PROCEDURE: –

  1. The position of vertical and horizontal supports shall be marked on the wall.
  2. The marked portion shall be chiseled for sufficient bearings in the wall, using cutter machine necessarily.
  3. The verticals shall be fixed in line, level and plumb.
  4. Place the sub base of the bottom of the sink, sub base of the kitchen platform shall be fixed on the vertical supports in line and level.
  5. The nahani trap shall be fixed at the sink bottom & seal the hole of the outlet in wall, in rich cement mortar.
  6. The bottom and sides of the sink shall be fixed with the slope of the bottom, towards nahani trap.
  7. The sink bottom shall be finished with waterproofing & with proper slope towards nahani trap.
  8. Cement mortar of 1:6 shall be laid on sub base with proper slope towards sink.
  9. The top stone shall be fixed with cement slurry.
  10. Facia shall be fixed, 6 mm above top of platform, on the higher end and in level. Clits (washer) shall be used for anchoring between facia & Kitchen otta.
  11. A slot shall be kept at decided position for gas pipe outlet.
  12. Proper care shall be taken while fixing the sink.
  13. All the joints shall be filed with joint filler.
  14. The kitchen platform shall be cleaned properly.
  15. All edges of the top shall be rounded off and polished.
  16. Curing shall be done atleast for 7 days.
  17. Top of kitchen platform shall be masked before fixing kitchen dado.

COUNTER BASIN: –

  1. Procedure for fixing counter basin ( i.e. under counter / over counter ) is similar to the procedure of fixing of kitchen platform.
  2. Precautions shall be taken for cutting holes in sub base and top and for pillar cock/basin mixer.
  1. Edge of top is to be polished & rounded up matching to the shape & edge of under counter basin.

TREADS & RISERS: –

Treads and risers shall be fixed only after all plaster work in the staircase is completed.

  1. All the RCC treads and risers shall be properly cleaned for excessive mortar.
  2. The height of risers shall be calculated considering the finalized flooring level of successive floor landings & the thickness of the tread stock.
  3. Height of each riser between successive floors shall be equal.
  4. Treads shall be dressed for uniform thickness.
  5. Nosing of 5mm shall be provided for treads. Sharp edges of the tread shall be chamfered & polished.
  6. The first riser shall be fixed using C.M. 1:4, Follow the same procedure for all above steps in staircase.
  7. The use of staircase shall be avoided atleast for 24 hours after fixing the tiles.
  8. All the joints shall be cleaned and filled with the joint filler.
  9. Curing shall be done atleast for 7 days.

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