Carelessness is responsible for a large proportion of Fires, so the owners & occupant of the building should take greater care to avid the out bursts of fire. However the designer of the building should ensure that the premises complies with the rules and regulations formed by the municipal authorities. The rules & regulations may vary from place to place.
What is Fire Fighting System:
Provision of detecting warning and extinguishing equipment to dealing with fires is fire-fighting system.
Requirement: Required if the height of building exceeds 15m from ground level. This system is to be installed compulsorily.
Basic requirements for fire fighting system:
- Access to the building
- Water supply for Fire fighting
- Fire alarm System
- Fire lift
- Refuge Area
- Fire extinguishers
It is important to provide reasonable access to fire fighting tankers to all buildings. It should be possible to drive the fire appliances to the entrance of the building.
- Water Supply for Fire Fighting
- OHWT of the building should have a provision of minimum 10,000 liters of water for fire fighting with partition for domestics use
- A 150mm diameter Rising main is installed from the staircase, which should be easily accessible from the landings at all floors. It is connected to the OHWT & UGWT.
- This rising main is connected to the double controlled fire hydrant valve by 100 mm diameter GI pipe on each floor.
- One control of the valve is connected to be wall mounted Hose reel with rubber pipe 20mm diameter & 15 meters length. The other end is kept free for fixing fire hosepipe 65mm diameter, 15 meters long with Gunmetal coupling.
- Fire hose box: Is installed on each floor this box is fabricated MS Sheet box glass fronted & with lock & key. The Fire Hose Pipe is kept in this box. This box should be fixed in such a way that its easily visible & accessible.
- Single control valves: Two single controlled walls are installed at the ground floor one at front side of building & the other on the backside. These are connected to the Rising main. The purpose of installing these valves is that the hose can be fixed to these valves and water can be sprayed from the outer side of the building.
- One three way inlet breacher is installed on the ground floor at the entrance of the building. From this water can be pumped in to the main riser by the fire-fighting vehicle.
- Pumps: One 5HP mono block is required to be installed at the terrace level and one pump of 20HP on the U.G.W.T. to which the Riser main is connected.
- In buildings, where height of building is more than 15m & has basement parking, installation of sprinklers is compulsory. The sprinklers have a bulb of tough transparent material as a strut to support a valve assembly, which forms a watertight joint. This bulb contains a liquid, which expands when heated as the temperature rises. As the internal pressure increases the bulb eventually fractures and shatters into small pieces which allows immediate discharge of water from the valve on to the deflectors and water is sparkled over the area. The sprinklers are connected to the main Riser by 25mm GI pipe network all over the parking with sufficient nos. of sprinklers.
Automatic electric fire alarm system consist of detectors fixed in suitable positions on each floor which can be activated by heat, smoke detectors or by manual call points, which operate an electric circuit to give the alarm by the ringing of siren inside as well as outside the building.
The system installed at the ground floor indicates the floor on with the fire is detected. The system can also automatically. Summons the fire brigade if it is attached with telephone connection. In case of manual call point system, the glass of the call point switch is to be broken by hammer that activates the system and the siren blows.
These are required for any building of height above 24m from the ground The lift have a platform area of not less than 1.44m2 and capable of carrying of least 544 kgs. It has a fireman to switch at ground floor level from floor enabling fireman to summon it without the interference from landing call points The switch is placed in a glass fronted box marked Fire Switch at the entrance.
It is an area usually at 24m levels, which is kept as a open hall without internal walls, It should be at the exteriors face of the building. It is a place where in case of fire all the occupants of the building can assemble and can be evacuated by fire fighting personnel.
- Portable fire extinguisher:
Portable fire extinguishing cylinders of 5kg of dry chemical powder should be installed at parking, meter room, lift room & transformer room.
- The system should be operated at least once a month and check if the entire hydrant valves and pumps are in working condition.
The dry powder of the fire extinguisher should be changed as per the expiry date.